The influenza virus is divided into three types: A, B, and C. Influenza A can cause a worldwide pandemic. The influenza virus is a segmented single-stranded negative-strand RNA virus. The protein bound to the nucleic acid is a nuclear protein (nucleoproteiN, NP), and the NP antigen is stable and has a type specificity. Outside the virus core is a matrix protein (M protein) tightly bound to the viral envelope, the outermost is the envelope of the virus, there are two kinds of thorns on the envelope, one is hemagglutinin (HA), and the other is nerve. Neuraminidase (NA), both of which are susceptible to mutation. The clinical diagnosis of influenza virus can be performed by serological methods, and the antigen can be directly detected by a rapid method. Serological methods for detecting antibodies include hemagglutination inhibition test, complement fixation test, neutralization test, and ELISA, but the most used is the hemagglutination inhibition test. The rapid methods for detecting antigens include direct and indirect immunofluorescence, radioimmunoassay, ELISA, immunoelectron microscopy, etc., but the most used are indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA. In addition, nucleic acid can also be detected by PCR and nucleic acid hybridization.

Basic Information

Specialist classification: Infectious disease inspection and classification: pathogenic microorganism inspection

Applicable gender: whether men and women apply fasting: fasting

Analysis results:

Below normal:

Normal value:
no

Above normal:

negative:
Normal, not infected with influenza virus.

Positive:
Collect the serum of the patient during the acute phase (the first 3 days of onset) and the recovery period (2 to 3 weeks after the onset of the disease), and measure under the same conditions. If the antibody titer in the recovery period serum is more than 4 times higher than the acute phase, It can be confirmed that it is a flu patient.

Tips: Open the window to keep the indoor air flowing and drink plenty of water. Normal value

negative.

Clinical significance

Because influenza virus infection is widespread and there is a recall reaction, and there are different degrees of antigenic crossover between the same subtypes of different strains, the presence or absence of influenza virus antibodies or antibodies in the patient's serum cannot be determined. Evidence of diagnosis. Sera from patients in the acute phase (the first 3 days of onset) and during the recovery phase (2 to 3 weeks after onset) must be collected and measured under the same conditions. Where the antibody titer in the recovery period serum is more than 4 times higher than the acute phase, Only to confirm that it is a flu patient.

In addition, due to the extremely complex antigenic variation of influenza virus, the antigenicity of the strains in different regions and even different units in the same region is not exactly the same. Therefore, when performing antibody assays, it is preferred to use the antigens of the local strains at the time plus representative strains of the country.

Positive results may be diseases: highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection, viral influenza precautions

Inappropriate people: generally no special population.

Taboo before inspection: Do not close the window. Open the window to keep the indoor air flowing and drink plenty of water.

Requirements for inspection: Generally follow the instructions of the doctor and follow the doctor's instructions.

Inspection process

The clinical diagnosis of influenza virus can be performed by serological methods, and the antigen can be directly detected by a rapid method. Serological methods for detecting antibodies include hemagglutination inhibition test, complement fixation test, neutralization test, and ELISA, but the most used is the hemagglutination inhibition test. The rapid methods for detecting antigens include direct and indirect immunofluorescence, radioimmunoassay, ELISA, immunoelectron microscopy, etc., but the most used are indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA. In addition, nucleic acid can also be detected by PCR and nucleic acid hybridization.

Not suitable for the crowd

Those who do not have an indication for examination should not do this check.

Adverse reactions and risks

Generally no complications and harm.