Serum potassium (K+, K)
Refers to the concentration of potassium ions in the serum. Potassium in human body is mainly distributed in cells. Potassium is used to maintain cell metabolism, regulate body fluid osmotic pressure, and maintain acid-base balance. The main source of potassium in human body is dependent on the intake from the outside. In addition to the small amount of potassium used for tissue cells, most of it is excreted by the kidneys, so the change of serum potassium reflects the kidney function.Basic Information
Specialist classification: growth and development examination classification: blood examination
Applicable gender: whether men and women apply fasting: fastingAnalysis results:
1, oral intake decreased. 2. Potassium is transferred into intracellular fluid, alkalosis and insulin. 3, the effects of hormones, such as primary or secondary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, the use of high-dose corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone, promote renal potassium and potassium.
1, renal failure, urinary excretion disorders and adrenal insufficiency. 2, severe hemolysis and infection, burns, tissue destruction, insulin deficiency. 3, tissue hypoxia, cardiac insufficiency, respiratory disorders, shock and so on.
Adults 4.1 to 5.6 mmol/L (4.1 to 5.6 mEq/L).
Children 3.4 ~ 4.7mmol / L (3.4 ~ 4.7mEq / L).Clinical significance
(1) Renal failure, urinary excretion disorders, and adrenal insufficiency.
(2) severe hemolysis and infection, burns, tissue destruction, and insulin deficiency.
(3) tissue hypoxia, cardiac insufficiency, respiratory disorders, shock.
(4) Increase in oral and intravenous intake.
(5) Acute intestinal obstruction.
(6) A large number of users of digitalis.
(1) Reduced oral intake.
(2) Potassium is transferred into intracellular fluid, alkalosis and insulin.
(3) the effects of hormones, such as primary or secondary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, the use of high-dose corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone, promote renal potassium and potassium.
(4) Excessive potassium loss in the digestive tract, such as frequent vomiting and diarrhea.
(5) Loss of urinary potassium and renal tubular acidosis.
(6) Hemodialysis can also cause hypokalemia.Low results may be diseases: high results of primary aldosteronism may be disease: Adrenal insufficiency considerations
It is best not to eat before checking.Inspection process
1. Flame photometer method:
At present, the flame photometer used in each laboratory has two measurement methods: direct measurement and internal standard measurement.
(1) Direct measurement method: firstly prepare different concentrations of potassium standard solution, measure the intensity of the emitted light and record the reading, then use the concentration as the abscissa, the galvanometer reading as the ordinate, draw a standard curve, and then read according to the specimen. Check potassium and content from the standard curve. The serum potassium concentration is low, the ground state potassium atoms are less in the flame, the atomic absorption is less, and the sample has a linear relationship within 10 mmol/L. The single standard solution can also be used to calculate the measurement result.
(2) Internal standard measurement method: The sample is diluted with a standard dilution solution containing lithium, and the ratio of the potassium electric signal to the lithium battery signal is used as a quantitative parameter to perform measurement calculation. Most of the flame photometers can directly display the measurement result. This method can reduce the error caused by flame instability, thereby improving precision and accuracy.
2. Ion selective depolarization method:
There are two methods for measuring potassium using an ion selective electrode, one is a direct potential method and the other is an indirect potential method.
(1) Direct potential method: The sample (serum, plasma, whole blood) or standard solution directly enters the ISE pipeline for potential analysis without dilution. This method can truly reflect the activity of ions in serum that is physiologically significant, so the reporting method is serum potassium mmol/L activity.
(2) Indirect potential method: the sample (serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid) and the standard solution should be diluted with a dilution of the specified ionic strength and pH, and then sent to the electrode tube to determine its potential, then the pH of the sample and the standard solution. The value tends to be consistent with the ionic strength, and the ion activity of the measured solution is equal to the ion concentration. Reported in mmol/L concentration.
Different models of ISE analyzers operate differently. Generally, the following steps are required:
1 Turn on the instrument and clean the pipe. The electrode is activated with an activating solution.
2 Two-point calibration is performed with a low and high value slope calibrator suitable for the instrument.
3 The sample of the indirect potential method is automatically diluted by the instrument and then measured. The direct potential method can directly measure the sample into the electrode tube.
4 The measurement result is calculated by the computer in the instrument and the data is printed out.
5 After using it every day, clean the electrode and the pipe and then turn it off, or it won't turn off.Not suitable for the crowd
no.Adverse reactions and risks