This test is to observe the presence or absence of malignant tumor cells in the sputum by microscope. Adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma are less common. Adenocarcinoma can be further divided into well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and alveolar cell carcinoma. Undifferentiated carcinoma can be divided into small cell undifferentiated carcinoma and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Metastatic tumors are also more common in squamous cell carcinoma, and there are fewer adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. The primary tumor site must be combined with clinical diagnosis.

Basic Information

Specialist classification: Respiratory examination classification: sputum examination

Applicable gender: whether men and women apply fasting: fasting

Analysis results:

Below normal:

Normal value:
no

Above normal:

negative:
Negative: no tumor cells were found.

Positive:
Positive: Find tumor cells.

Tips: Before sampling, you should repeatedly gargle, after a few deep breaths, cough hard, do not spit into saliva. Normal value

Negative: no tumor cells were found.

Clinical significance

Cytology is mainly used for the screening and diagnosis of respiratory malignancies. If you find a tumor cell, it means lung cancer. Most of the cancer cells found in sputum are from primary lung tumors, and metastatic tumors are rare. Lung cancer is more common in squamous cell carcinoma (referred to as squamous cell carcinoma) and can be classified into highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Low-profile squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma are less common. Adenocarcinoma can be further divided into well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and alveolar cell carcinoma. Undifferentiated carcinoma can be divided into small cell undifferentiated carcinoma and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Metastatic tumors are also more common in squamous cell carcinoma, and there are fewer adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. The primary tumor site must be combined with clinical diagnosis.

Positive results may be diseases: lung cancer, lung metastases, pediatric bronchopulmonary hypoplasia, lung metastatic tumors, small cell lung cancer

The first morning sputum was collected and used for cytology and microbiological examination. Before sampling, you should repeatedly gargle, cough after a few deep breaths, and do not spit into saliva. Sampling of microbial culture should be taken before the start of antibiotics and other medical treatments. If it has been used, samples should be taken at the lowest level of blood drug concentration.

Inspection process

1. Collection of sputum specimens: Patients are required to collect sputum that is coughed up in the lungs in the morning. Medical staff must carefully guide patients how to cough from the deep lungs, can not eat anything before coughing, it is best to gargle with water 3 times to remove oral debris. After doing 2 to 3 deep breaths, and then coughing hard, cough up the deep lungs, discard the first sputum, and leave the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sputum as specimens. If the patient has difficulty coughing, helium can be inhaled with 3% to 5% sodium chloride solution to induce sputum discharge. Most hospitals are currently housed in clean glass or placed in 95% ethanol.

2, timely inspection: the inside of the indwelling utensils should be sent to the laboratory within 1 ~ 2h. If it cannot be sent in time, it must be stored in a refrigerator at 4 °C. The smear should be performed by an experienced technician. Choose a blood-stained sputum or a gray-white smear. The smear should be evenly distributed and immediately placed in a fixative, stained with pasteurized or hematoxylinandeosin (HE). . The sputum specimens placed in ethanol can be sent to the pathology department for staining after paraffin embedding.

Not suitable for the crowd

Inappropriate people: Generally there are no people who are not suitable.

Adverse reactions and risks

No adverse reactions.