The blood testis barrier in males isolates the sperm from the immune system, but when the barrier is damaged by disease or trauma, sperm or its soluble membrane antigens escape, which can lead to the body's production of anti-sperm autoantibodies (AsAb), thereby inhibiting Sperm activity and fertilization, resulting in male infertility. The normal female genital tract has an enzyme system that degrades the incoming sperm antigen, but defects in this enzyme system keep the sperm antigen intact and stimulate the production of the same species of AsAb. Human sperm antigens are very complex. They include "sperm-attached antigens" (actually multiple seminal plasma components) attached to the surface of sperm and cell membrane antigens inherent in sperm. There are about 30 kinds of spermatozoa, some of which are specific to sperm and some are non-negative. special. Some are related to fertility, and some are not related to fertility. These antigens can induce the corresponding antibody production, and with the participation of complement, can cause sperm dyskinesia and immune response of the same species and self sperm, leading to infertility. There are many methods for determining AsAb. At present, there are many methods such as shallow plate microagglutination, eosin Y staining, test tube agglutination, solid phase enzyme staining, immunobead method, immunoblotting method, ELISA method and immunospot method. .

Basic Information

Specialist classification: eugenics and superiority examination classification: immune examination

Applicable gender: whether men and women apply fasting: not fasting

Analysis results:

Below normal:

Normal value:
no

Above normal:

negative:
normal.

Positive:
Positive is generally seen in infertility.

Tips: Women should also check the menstrual cycle and exclude other infections and organ lesions. Normal value

Normal human serum AsAb is generally negative, that is, 1 observation of 10 high power field (400×), agglutination field of view <5 (test tube-slide agglutination test); 2 immunobeads seen in each high power field adhere to live sperm Number < 2 (immunized bead binding test); 3 normal fertility couple. The percentage of dead sperm is ≤ 9% (Yihong Y staining method); 4 oil mirror observation, sperm is not stained or dyed very pale yellow (solid phase enzyme staining); 5 ratio of test sample to negative control serum absorbance (A) ( P/N) < 2.1 (ELISA method).

Clinical significance

(1) The appearance of anti-sperm antibodies and the increase in titer can cause infertility in both males and females. Therefore, the detection of AsAb can be used as an important indicator for clinical treatment and prognosis of infertility patients.

(2) AsAb uses different detection methods, the results are not the same, usually the infertility patients with serum AsAb detection rate of 20% to 30%, and in obstructive azoospermia patients, AsAb positive rate can be as high as 60%.

(3) Infertility patients have different Ig types of AsAb in serum and seminal plasma. The serum is usually mainly IgG and IgM AsAb; while in seminal plasma, there are more IgG and IgA AsAb.

(4) AsAb may also occur in vas deferens caused by other causes as well as damage and inflammation of the testis and epididymis. Given the heterogeneity of AsAbs and the fact that many of the target antigens targeted by AsAbs are not related to fertility, positive results for AsAb must be considered in conjunction with clinical practice.

Precautions

(1) Some female genital tracts can not degrade the sperm antigen when they are deficient in the enzyme system, so that the entered sperm maintains its antigenicity, stimulates women to produce anti-sperm antibodies, antibodies in the cervix, causing sperm agglutination or braking, resulting in Female infertility.

(2) Antisperm antibodies must be combined with the sperm count, sperm count, and sperm motility function of the male. Women should also check the menstrual cycle and exclude other infections and organ lesions before they can determine whether they affect fertility.

Inspection process

Same as ELISA method and IFAT method.

Not suitable for the crowd

There are no taboos.

Adverse reactions and risks

There are no related complications and hazards.