Introduction to Dementia Syndrome
Dementia syndrome (dementiasyndrome) is a chronic and comprehensive mental disorder characterized by slow-onset mental decline, including memory, thinking, understanding, judgment, calculation, and other functions, and varying degrees of personality change, without consciousness. obstacle. More common in the onset of slow, long-term brain disease.basic knowledge
The proportion of illness: 0.04%
Susceptible people: good for older men and women
Mode of infection: non-infectious
Complications: A malnutrition Malnutrition Constipation Septicemia
Cause of dementia syndrome
(1) Central nervous system diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Pick disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Lewy body dementia.
(2) Systemic diseases: 1 endocrine and metabolic diseases: thyroid disease, parathyroid disease, pituitary-adrenal disease, state after hypoglycemia; 2 liver disease: chronic progressive hepatic brain disease; 3 kidney disease: chronic uremic encephalopathy, Progressive uremic encephalopathy; 4 cardiovascular disease: hypoxia or hypoxia, vascular dementia, arrhythmia, vasculitic lesions; 5 lung disease: pulmonary encephalopathy.
(3) Nutritional deficiency: vitamin B12 and B1 deficiency, folic acid deficiency.
(4) drugs and toxins: alcohol, carbon monoxide, heavy metals.
(5) intracranial tumors and brain damage.
(6) Infectious diseases: Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, neurosyphilis-systemic paralysis, AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous and fungal meningitis.
(7) Others: hepatolenticular degeneration, hydrocephalus hydrocephalus, sarcoma-like disease, normal hydrocephalus.
Among them, the curative causes are normal pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial space-occupying lesions, vitamin B12 deficiency and B1 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, hypothyroidism, and neurosyphilis.
Dementia syndrome prevention
1. Dementia is a syndrome that can be caused by many causes. Treatment and prevention depend on the cause. Some dementias are treatable and efforts should be made to identify active treatment. For example, meningioma, normal pressure hydrocephalus, vitamin B1 or B12 deficiency, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia encephalopathy, hepatic brain syndrome, etc., dementia can be reversed after appropriate treatment.
2. Clinical dementia is more common in chronic brain organic diseases. For such patients, they should be encouraged to maintain their ability to live and participate in social activities.
Dementia syndrome complications Complications , malnutrition, malnutrition, constipation, sepsis
1. If the patient is in bed for a long time and maintains a certain fixed position or posture for a long time, the body is under pressure, the back and back of the back skin and soft tissue blood circulation is blocked, malnutrition, poor resistance, easy to cause local skin redness , ulceration, erosion, ulcers, sputum formation of acne, ulceration enlarges and deepens in severe cases, secondary to systemic infection, can cause sepsis and endanger life.
2. If the patient has incontinence and incontinence, if it is not cleaned in time, it is easy to cause urinary tract infection. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to changing the cloth frequently and keep it clean. If there is perianal or red skin, use warm water to clean and rub. Dry, and coated with zinc oxide paste to protect the skin, if there is constipation, should be laxative, can be used to open the dew or with soapy water enema, increase the intake of cellulose in the diet, can prevent the stool dry to some extent The traditional Chinese medicine Senna leaf soaked in water on behalf of the tea has a good laxative function.
3. The patient lacks exercise, has poor resistance, and is prone to pulmonary infection. Therefore, special care should be taken to avoid cold and prevent colds. Otherwise, the sputum is not easy to cough up after upper respiratory tract infection, and it is easy to spread to the lower respiratory tract and cause lung infection. .
Symptoms of dementia syndrome Common symptoms Memory impairment Memory loss Apathy Ataxia Small gait convulsions Mental disorders Orientation disorders Recent obsessive phenomena Forgetful aphasia
Undernutrition can also lead to dementia, dementia, dermatitis and diarrhea as a triad of psoriasis caused by typical tobacco acid deficiency. Due to insufficient vitamin B12, bloody dyscrasia and other nervous system dysfunction often occur before dementia occurs, such as Peripheral neuropathy and spinal cord and lateral column lesions, the above-mentioned vitamin B12 defect symptoms can also be seen in patients with folate deficiency.
Examination of dementia syndrome
The following examinations are required for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease:
1. Imaging examination: CT, MRI, PET.
2. Detection of related gene mutations.
3. Pathological examination.
5. Neuropsychological scale examination.
6. Cerebrospinal fluid examination, etc.
Diagnostic identification of dementia syndrome
First consider whether there is dementia syndrome, mainly rely on detailed medical history, understand the patient's past intelligence, when to start mental decline, including work, study and memory skills; and patiently and meticulously conduct mental examinations, especially memory, calculations, Smart checks such as understanding, common sense and judgment. Short-range memory impairment (that is, the inability to learn new knowledge) is manifested in the fact that patients cannot retell three objects after 5 minutes; long-term memory impairments (that is, the inability to recall knowledge that has been mastered in the past) are manifested in patients who cannot recall their past experiences (such as yesterday). What happened, place of birth, occupation) or some common sense (such as current or past heads of state, well-known major festivals).