Humerus fracture

Introduction

Introduction to tibia fracture

The humerus and the zygomatic arch are the prominent parts of the face and are susceptible to impact and fracture. The tibia is associated with the maxilla, frontal, sphenoid and humerus, and the maxillary joint is the largest. Therefore, the fracture of the humerus is often accompanied by a fracture of the maxilla, and the condyle of the tibia is connected with the condyle of the tibia. It constitutes a zygomatic arch, which is narrower and more prone to fracture (fractureofzygomaticarch).

basic knowledge

The proportion of illness: 0.001%

Susceptible people: no specific population

Mode of infection: non-infectious

Complications: eyeball retraction

Pathogen

Cause of humeral fracture

The disease is mainly caused by the external violence. Because the tibia and the zygomatic arch are the more prominent parts of the face, it is easy to cause fractures due to violence such as collision and trauma.

Prevention

Prevention of tibia fracture

The disease is mainly caused by external violence, so there is no special prevention method. Avoiding damage in production and life is the key to prevent this disease. In addition, if the tibia occurs, the zygomatic arch fracture should be treated promptly. The situation is handled.

Complication

Coma bone fracture complications Complications, eyeball retraction

In patients with this disease, severe cases may have depression and displacement deformity after fracture, causing many concurrent injuries:

1. The fracture site compresses the diaphragm or obstructs the movement of the condyle, resulting in limited mouth opening.

2, the tibia constitutes the majority of the external wall of the iliac crest and the infraorbital margin. After the fracture is displaced, the eyeball can be displaced and diplopia can be produced.

3, if the humeral fracture caused by the infraorbital nerve injury, it will cause numbness in the underarm area.

4. The relationship between the volume of the bony sputum and the eyeball is that the eyeball invagination is 0.89 mm for every 1 cm3 increase in the volume of the sputum. In addition, the soft tissue embedded in the maxillary sinus, fat atrophy and scar traction can also cause eyeball retraction. .

Symptom

Symptoms of humeral fractures Common symptoms Eyeball displacement Freckle double vision Metatarsal frontal depression Subsided collapse

1, facial collapse

The displacement direction of the fracture block after fracture of the humerus and the humerus depends mainly on the direction of the external force. The invagination shift occurs frequently. In the early stage after the injury, the facial depression is visible. Subsequently, due to local swelling, the depression is not obvious. It was mistaken for simple soft tissue injury, and after a few days, the swelling subsided and local collapse occurred.

2, limited mouth

Due to the invagination displacement of the fracture block, the diaphragm and masseter muscle are oppressed, which hinders the movement of the condyle, resulting in pain in the mouth and limited mouth opening.

3, double vision

The humerus constitutes the majority of the lateral wall and the inferior temporal margin. After the displacement of the humerus fracture, the eyeball can be displaced, the abductor muscle oozing and local edema, and the torn subocular oblique muscle are embedded in the fracture line, limiting eye movement. I found double vision for other reasons.

4, freckle

When there is a closed fracture of the humerus wall, there may be hemorrhagic ecchymoses under the skin around the eyelid and under the conjunctiva.

5, neurological symptoms

The humeral maxillary protrusion may damage the infraorbital nerve, resulting in numbness in the innervation area. If the facial nerve is injured at the same time, the eyelid closure may occur.

Examine

Examination of the fracture of the tibia

The examination methods for this disease mainly include physical examination and X-ray examination:

1, physical examination

Palpation fractures may have tenderness, collapse displacement, sacral forehead, sacral maxillary suture junction and sacral margin may have step formation, such as palpation from the anterior sulcus along the vestibular sulcus, can check the humerus and upper jaw Whether the space between the bone and the condyle becomes smaller, these all contribute to the diagnosis of the tibial fracture.

2, X-ray inspection

X-ray plain film examination often takes the nasal sacral position and the sacral position or CT radiography. In the sinus radiograph, not only the fracture of the humerus and the zygomatic arch can be seen, but also the eyelid, maxillary sinus and armpit can be observed. There are abnormalities in the structure of the hole, etc., and the zygomatic arch position can clearly show the fracture and displacement of the zygomatic arch. Because the fracture of the tibia is more common with the fracture of the adjacent bone, including the maxilla, the condyle of the humerus and the sphenoid bone, it is often called . The bone conforms to the body fracture.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis and diagnosis of tibia fracture

diagnosis

The humeral arch fracture can be diagnosed according to the history of injury, clinical features and X-ray examination.

Palpation fractures may have tenderness, collapse displacement, sacral forehead, sacral maxillary suture junction and sacral margin may have step formation, such as palpation from the anterior sulcus along the vestibular sulcus, can check the humerus and upper jaw Whether the space between the bone and the condyle becomes smaller, these all contribute to the diagnosis of the tibial fracture.

X-ray examination often takes the nasal sacral position and the sacral arch position. In the X-ray film of the nasal sacral position, not only the fracture of the humerus and the zygomatic arch can be seen, but also the eyelid, the maxillary sinus and the infraorbital hole can be observed. No abnormalities, the zygomatic arch position can clearly show the fracture and displacement of the zygomatic arch.

Generally, it can be divided into tibiofibular fracture, zygomatic arch fracture, humeral and arch fracture combined with iliac crest, complicated maxillary fracture, etc., and zygomatic arch fracture can be divided into double-line and three-line fracture, Knight and North proposed type 6 taxonomy:

1 non-displaced fracture; 2 zygomatic arch fracture; 3 tibiofibular fracture displaced inward and downward without transposition; 4 internal transpositional humeral fracture, left counterclockwise, right side clockwise or toward The midline rotates, the X-ray film shows the lower edge of the inferior tibia, and the sacral forehead shifts to the medial side; 5 the external humeral body fracture, the left side clockwise, the right side counterclockwise or away from the midline, X-ray film performance The lower edge of the inferior temporal iliac crest is displaced laterally; 6 complex fractures.

Differential diagnosis

The humeral arch fracture can be diagnosed according to the history of injury, clinical features and radiography, without identification.

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