Gum cancer

Introduction

Introduction to gingival cancer

Gingival cancer is mostly highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, and ulcer type is the most common. Lower gums are more common than upper gums, tumor growth is slow, more men than women, clinically can be ulcers or papillae. Early tumors invade the alveolar process and the jaw bone, and the teeth appear loose, displaced, or even fall off. The bureau is accompanied by pain. Upper jaw gingival cancer can invade the maxillary sinus, and the mandibular gingival cancer can invade the fundus and ankle, and it can cause difficulty in opening the mouth when it invades the posterior region and the pharynx.

basic knowledge

The proportion of sickness: 0.01%

Susceptible people: more men than women

Mode of infection: non-infectious

Complications: bad breath, swelling

Pathogen

The cause of gingival cancer

Environmental factors (40%):

The cause of oral cancer has not yet been fully understood, but the current consensus is that most oral cancers are related to environmental factors. Some external factors such as heat, chronic damage, ultraviolet rays, X-rays and other radioactive substances can become carcinogenic factors. For example, tongue and buccal mucosa cancer can occur in long-term, often irritated areas such as residual roots, sharp cusps, and poor prostheses.

Other factors (30%):

Intrinsic factors such as neuropsychiatric factors, endocrine factors, immune status and genetic factors are found to be associated with the development of oral cancer. Before the onset of oral cancer, there is usually a precancerous stage, such as oral leukoplakia, traumatic ulcer, mastoid Tumor and so on.

Prevention

Gum cancer prevention

The prevention of oral cancer is to reduce external stimuli, actively treat precancerous lesions, and improve the body's disease resistance. At present, with the improvement of modern treatment technology, the treatment of oral cancer has a good effect. Many patients are aware of oral cancer. After that, it is often considered to be an incurable disease without active treatment, or there is a lucky feeling, hope that some prescriptions will be treated, which will delay the disease and lose treatment opportunities. It should emphasize early detection and early treatment, and focus on comprehensive treatment. . A reasonable diet can take more high-fiber and fresh vegetables and fruits, balanced nutrition, including essential nutrients such as protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, trace elements and dietary fiber, with a combination of vegetarian and vegetarian foods. The complementary role of nutrients in food.

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Complication

Gingival cancer complications Complications, bad breath, swelling

Gingival cancer often has secondary infections, which are easy to hemorrhage and accompanied by severe bad breath. When the volume is too large, facial swelling may occur, and the skin may be infiltrated. The gingival carcinoma often has submandibular lymph node metastasis.

Symptom

Gingival cancer symptoms Common symptoms After the molars, the redness and swelling of the mouth is difficult. The teeth are erupted. After the tooth extraction, the wound is prolonged and the bone is destroyed. The neck lymph nodes are "fan-shaped"... The hard tissue under the jaw is numb.

1. The lower gingiva is more than the upper gingiva, the growth is slower, and it is mostly ulcerated.

2. Invasion of the alveolar process and the jaw bone destroys the bone and can cause loosening and pain.

3. When the posterior development of the molar area and the pharynx is developed, it may cause difficulty in opening the mouth.

4. It can metastasize to cervical lymph nodes, and the mandibular gingival cancer metastasizes to the submandibular and axillary lymph nodes, and then to the deep cervical lymph nodes; the maxillary gingival cancer is transferred to the submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes.

5. X-ray examination showed that the jaw bone was "fan-shaped" and the edge was worm-like.

Examine

Gingival cancer examination

1. For clinical manifestations, the tumor is more limited than the ones to check the project to check the box limit "A".

2. For the atypical clinical manifestations, the differential diagnosis is more difficult, and the larger the tumor is closely related to the surrounding important structure or the suspected metastatic examination project may include the check boxes "B" and "C".

3, X-ray examination showed that the jaw bone was "fan-shaped" bone destruction, and the edge was worm-like.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis and diagnosis of gingival cancer

diagnosis

The diagnosis of gingival cancer is not difficult. The diagnosis of biopsy is also very convenient. Early gingival cancer, especially when it is confined to the gingival margin or interdental nipple, is easily misdiagnosed as gingivitis or periodontitis. Secondly, early, especially diffuse gingiva If the ulcer lesion on the edge is accompanied by pain, it can be misdiagnosed as gingival tuberculosis. Clinically, the possibility of gum cancer should be guarded when diagnosing the above diseases.

Differential diagnosis

Advanced gingival cancer should be differentiated from primary maxillary sinus cancer and central mandibular cancer because it is different in treatment and prognosis.

Maxillary sinus cancer: It is not easy to find in the early stage, but there may be symptoms such as nasal congestion, nosebleeds and increased nasal secretions on the side. If it develops downward, it can loosen and pain the upper teeth. If it develops upwards, it can make the eyeballs protrude, sometimes happening. The upper lip is numb; development to the rear can cause difficulty in opening the mouth.