Childhood mental disorders and mental retardation

Introduction

Introduction to childhood mental disorders and mental retardation

Childhood mental disorders refer to mental disorders that occur more or only in childhood. Mental disorders are more common in adulthood, but a few can also occur in childhood. Childhood usually refers to 12 to 14 years old, sometimes including 18 years old, and 18 years old or older. There are more than a dozen mental disorders listed in ICD-10 that are more common in childhood. Intelligence is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Most of the causes of mental retardation are unknown. Common causes of mental retardation during pregnancy include medication, alcohol abuse, radiation therapy, malnutrition, viral infections (such as rubella); chromosomal abnormalities such as Tang Syndrome is also a common cause of mental retardation. Many inherited metabolic diseases can cause mental retardation, such as phenylketonuria and cretinism (due to iodine deficiency), early treatment of small illness, prevent mental retardation, premature delivery It is still controversial whether brain damage at birth and hypoxia asphyxia cause mental retardation.

basic knowledge

Sickness ratio: 0.1%

Susceptible people: more than children

Mode of infection: non-infectious

Complications: childhood schizophrenia

Pathogen

Childhood mental disorders and causes of mental retardation

Intelligence is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Most of the causes of mental retardation are unknown. Common causes of mental retardation during pregnancy include medication, alcohol abuse, radiation therapy, malnutrition, viral infections (such as rubella); chromosomal abnormalities such as Tang Syndrome is also a common cause of mental retardation. Many inherited metabolic diseases can cause mental retardation, such as phenylketonuria and cretinism (due to iodine deficiency), early treatment of small illness, prevent mental retardation, premature delivery It is still controversial whether brain damage at birth and hypoxia asphyxia cause mental retardation.

Prevention

Childhood mental disorders and prevention of mental retardation

Genetic counseling can help parents understand the cause and help them determine the risk of developing a child with mental retardation. Amniocentesis and chorionic biopsy can help diagnose certain abnormalities, including genetic diseases, fetal spine or brain defects.

Complication

Childhood mental disorders and complications of mental retardation Complications, children, schizophrenia

Patients with mild mental retardation are immature, do not understand the world, have poor social communication skills, their thinking is only image thinking, often can not abstract thinking, they are difficult to adapt to the new environment, and the judgment is poor, can not be farsighted, they are easily deceived, Criminal behavior is prone to occur, but mild patients often participate in gang crimes as gang members and sometimes impulsive crimes in order to act as the leader of the gang.

Symptom

Childhood mental disorders and mental retardation symptoms Common symptoms Mild mental retardation Moderate mental retardation Children gender deviation Learning difficulties Dementia Psychological age is less than physiological age Psychic disorder Severe mental retardation Children psychomotor development abnormalities Children behaviors

Mental retardation is generally irreversible, and early diagnosis of mental retardation can provide a basis for developing education and training programs.

A standardized IQ test can measure the IQ level of mental retardation. There is a certain degree of bias in IQ measurement, but it can still reasonably and accurately evaluate children's intelligence, especially for older children.

Children with IQ (IQ) values of 69 to 84 generally have learning difficulties and no mental retardation. They are rarely checked before enrollment, and are diagnosed when education and behavior problems are prominent. Special education is given to them. They generally complete their studies and earn their own living.

Education is very beneficial for children with mental retardation. Children with mild mental retardation (IQ values 52-68) may reach cognitive ability in grades 4-6. Although they have difficulty reading, most of them have mental retardation. Children can master the basic educational functions needed for daily life. They need counseling, support, special education and training equipment. When they grow up, they need a safe living environment and workplace. Although they have no obvious physical defects, they may have epilepsy.

Patients with mild mental retardation are immature, do not understand the world, have poor social communication skills, their thinking is only image thinking, often can not abstract thinking, they are difficult to adapt to the new environment, and the judgment is poor, can not be farsighted, they are easily deceived, It is prone to criminal behavior, but mild patients often act as members of a gang, participate in gang crimes, and sometimes commit impulsive crimes in order to act as the leader of the gang.

Children with moderate mental retardation (IQ 36-51) have significant language and motor developmental delay, giving a lot of training and support. Adults with mild to moderate mental retardation can live in different degrees in society. Some people can live with a minimum of support through reintegration training, while others need good supervision.

Children with severe mental retardation (IQ 20-35) are less able to train than moderate children, and extremely severe children (IQ below 19) generally do not walk, do not speak, dementia.

Children with mental retardation have a short life expectancy. Depending on the cause and severity of the disease, life expectancy is different, and patients with more severe disease have shorter life expectancy.

Examine

Childhood mental disorder and mental retardation check

Neurological examinations often have non-focal manifestations (eg, gait incoordination, myoclonic reflexes, and stereotypes), but about 20% to 40% of children develop epilepsy before puberty. EEG examinations are usually meaningless.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis and differentiation of childhood mental disorders and mental retardation

Childhood schizophrenia, childhood schizophrenia, infant autism, etc.