Physiological ovarian cyst


Introduction to physiological ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts refer to the formation of cystic masses in the ovary, which can be divided into two types: neoplastic and non-neoplastic. Usually, physiological ovarian cysts are non-neoplastic. Physiological ovarian cysts are the most common ovarian cysts, which usually occur in women of childbearing age during ovulation. Physiological ovarian cysts usually disappear automatically. Ovarian tumors are common tumors of female genitalia and have various properties and forms, namely: single or mixed type, one side or two sides, cystic or substantial, benign or malignant, of which cystic is more common. The degree of malignant transformation is very high.

basic knowledge

Sickness ratio: 10%-20%

Susceptible people: women aged 20-50

Mode of infection: non-infectious

Complications: menstrual disorders, infertility, infertility, infertility, ovarian infertility, premature ovarian failure, severe ovarian edema, ovarian cancer, iron deficiency anemia, pelvic peritonitis


Physiological ovarian cysts


1. Genes. According to statistics, 20mdash; 25% of patients with ovarian tumors have a family history.

2, endocrine factors. Although the ovary is small, it is an important organ that produces eggs and ovulates, endocrine hormones, and balance endocrine. Ovarian tumors occur mostly in the endocrine reproductive age. The basic pathophysiological changes in many patients with ovarian cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome in clinical practice are that the ovaries produce too much androgen, and the excessive production of androgens is the result of the synergistic effects of multiple endocrine system functions in the body.

3. Lifestyle factors. Long-term diet structure, poor living habits, excessive psychological stress caused by excessive acidification of the body, the overall function of the human body decreased, and the immune function developed into abnormal proliferation of ovarian tissue, resulting in ovarian cysts and even cancer.

4. Environmental factors. Food contamination, such as plant growth hormones used in vegetables, such as hormones in lean meat concentrates in formulas such as livestock and poultry. In recent years, with the improvement of living standards and changes in eating habits in China, and some young and middle-aged women abuse hormone drugs and tonics such as breast milk, weight loss, and aging, the ovarian tumors are high-rising and young. May be relevant.


Physiological ovarian cyst prevention


1. Vigorously carry out propaganda, advocate high-protein, high-vitamin A, C, E diet, avoid high-cholesterol diet. Oral contraceptives should be used for high-risk women.

2, women over the age of 30 have a gynecological examination every year, high-risk groups should start the census from childhood, can do B-ultrasound, routine examination of fetal gamma globulin.

Ovarian cysts are a type of ovarian tumor in a broad sense. The morphological complexity of ovarian cysts exceeds that of any organ because:

1 The ovarian tissue structure has potential developmental pluripotency;

2 The ovary is very close to the urinary system during embryogenesis, and part of the renal tissue can be lost into the ovary;

3 ovaries come from embryonic genital warts, male and female homologous, with rear differentiation. Therefore, the cause of ovarian cysts is very complicated, many times beyond the normal cause.

The factors causing ovarian tumor disease and the prevention of ovarian tumors are unclear, but environmental and endocrine effects are most valued in the pathogenic factors of ovarian tumors. According to the epidemiological and etiological investigation of ovarian tumors, the risk factors and high-risk groups are:

1. Environmental factors: The incidence of ovarian cancer in industrialized and upper-class women is high, which may be related to high cholesterol in the diet. In addition, ionizing radiation and asbestos and talc powder may affect oocytes and increase the chance of inducing ovarian tumors. Smoking and vitamin A, C, and E deficiency may also be associated with the disease.

2, endocrine factors: ovarian tumors occur mostly in unmarried or unborn women, pregnancy seems to have an antagonistic effect on ovarian tumors, and it is believed that repeated rupture of ovarian epithelial cells caused by daily ovulation is associated with ovarian tumors. In addition, breast cancer and endometrial cancer are complicated by ovarian tumors, and all three diseases are dependent on this hormone.

3, genetic and family factors: about 20 to 25% of ovarian tumor patients in the immediate family members of the tumor patients.


Physiological ovarian cyst complications Complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, infertility, infertility, ovarian infertility, premature ovarian failure, ovarian severe edema, ovarian cancer, iron deficiency anemia, pelvic peritonitis


Physiological ovarian cyst symptoms Common symptoms Lower abdomen mass lower abdomen bulge abdominal circumference increase menstrual period during the menstrual period, the abdomen can touch the huge... Abdominal pain menstrual cycle changes edema

1. Abdominal thickening, intra-abdominal mass

This is the most common phenomenon in patients. The patient noticed that his clothes or belts appeared to be small, only to pay attention to the increase of the abdomen, or to accidentally notice in the morning, so he found a mass in the abdomen by the abdomen, and the abdominal distension was uncomfortable.

2. Abdominal pain

If the tumor has no complications, there is very little pain. Therefore, patients with ovarian tumors feel abdominal pain, especially in those who suddenly occur, multiple tumor pedicles are reversed, or even caused by cyst rupture, bleeding or infection. In addition, malignant cysts cause abdominal pain and leg pain, and the pain often causes the patient to see an emergency.

3. Menstrual disorders

One side of the ovary or even bilateral ovarian cysts, because it does not destroy all normal ovarian tissue, it does not cause menstrual disorders. Patients with menstrual disorders are often accompanied by ovarian physiological cysts, such as follicular cysts.

4. Compression symptoms

Huge ovarian cysts can cause difficulty in breathing and palpitations due to compression of the diaphragm. Ovarian cysts with large amounts of ascites can also cause this symptom; however, some patients with ovarian cysts have difficulty breathing due to unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion. And often combined with ascites.


Examination of physiological ovarian cysts

Radiological examination

For dermoid cysts, it can show teeth and bone; intravenous pelvis and fallopian tube angiography can understand whether the fallopian tube is displaced, compressed and infarcted, identify the kidney and retroperitoneal tumor; barium enema can help understand the intestinal condition. CT scans can complement lesions that B-ultrasound does not suggest.

2. Ultrasound examination

At present, an important method for diagnosing ovarian tumors can be used to detect the location, shape and size of the mass; cystic or solid; from the pelvic or abdominal cavity; uterus or attachment; identify ovarian tumor, ascites, tuberculous peritonitis. Any tumor with a diameter greater than 2 cm can be detected, and the clinical diagnosis coincidence rate is greater than 90%.

3. Cytological examination

After the operation of the iliac puncture, ascites for cytological examination, in the laparoscopic or laparotomy, the aspiration in the uterine rectum can be examined at the same time, the diagnosis of malignant tumors has a higher accuracy.


The general condition of the tumor can be directly seen, and the entire pelvic cavity can be observed. The multi-point biopsy at the suspicious site and the absorption of ascites for cytological examination can confirm the diagnosis. However, it is contraindicated for patients with large tumors or adhesive masses.


Diagnosis and identification of physiological ovarian cysts


Physiological ovarian cysts are mostly non-neoplastic cysts, and the diameter is rarely more than 5 cm. Once an ovarian cyst is found, it should be determined as early as a tumor cyst or a non-neoplastic cyst. Can be based on the speed of tumor growth, size, traits, and the corresponding examinations, such as: tumor markers, ultrasound diagnosis or abdominal tomography, magnetic resonance, if necessary, laparoscopy, laparotomy, can confirm the diagnosis.


1, ovarian tumor-like lesions: follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts are the most common. Mostly unilateral, less than 5cm in diameter, thin wall, disappearing within 2 months.

2, fallopian tube ovarian cyst: for inflammatory cysts, often have a history of infertility or pelvic infection, cystic masses formed in the attachment area on both sides, the boundary is clear or unclear, activity is limited.

3, uterine fibroids: subserosal fibroids or fibroids cystic changes easily confused with ovarian solid tumors or cysts. Fibroids are often multiple, connected to the uterus, with menstrual abnormalities such as menstruation and other symptoms, the tumor moves with the palace and the cervix.

4, pregnancy uterus: early pregnancy, the triad of the palace and the cervix seem to be disconnected, easy to mistake the soft palace body as an ovarian tumor. However, pregnant women have a history of menopause. If you can ask for a detailed history, you can identify them by HCG or B-mode ultrasound.

5, ascites: a large number of ascites should be identified with large ovarian cysts, ascites often have liver disease, history of heart disease, lying on both sides of the abdomen as the frog belly, percussive abdominal drum sound, both sides of the sound, mobile voiced positive; huge cyst When lying down, the middle of the abdomen is raised, the percussion is dull, the drum sounds on both sides of the abdomen, and the mobile voiced sound is negative; the boundary of the lower abdominal mass is clear, and the B-mode ultrasound can identify