Introduction

Introduction

is the secretion of the respiratory tract, and healthy people are generally awkward. However, if you have a respiratory disease, a large amount of sputum will be produced after infection by the pathogenic microorganism. Chinese medicine divides sputum into chills, wind sputum, sputum, dampness and dryness. Chronic bronchitis in the elderly, insidious onset, mostly onset in young and middle-aged, and a few in the elderly. More patients than in the cold season, coughing, coughing, especially in the morning, sputum is white mucus foam. Early symptoms are mild, mostly in the winter, relieved after warm spring; late inflammation is aggravated, symptoms persist for many years, regardless of season. Disease progression can be complicated by obstructive emphysema and pulmonary heart disease, which seriously affects labor and health.

Pathogen

Cause

Chronic bronchitis is a chronic, non-specific inflammation of the tracheal-bronchial mucosa and its surrounding tissues due to infection or non-infective factors. Its pathological features are bronchial mucosal hyperplasia and increased mucus secretion. Infection is one of the important factors in the occurrence and development of chronic bronchitis. Mycoplasma and bacterial infections are acute episodes of the disease. The main causes of viral infection are influenza virus rhinovirus adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Coccus haemophilus Haemophilus catarrhalis and staphylococci are common, and bacterial infection occurs on the basis of damage to the airway mucosa secondary to virus or mycoplasma infection.

Examine

an examination

Related inspection

Cultivate sputum routine examination

White blood cell classification count

The total number of white blood cells and the difference counts in the remission period were normal. The total number of white blood cells and neutrophils in the acute attack period complicated with bacterial infection increased, and the blood eosinophils in patients with asthma increased.

2. Sputum examination

The appearance of sputum in the acute attack period is mostly purulent, and a large number of neutrophils can be seen on the smear examination. More eosinophils can be seen in patients with asthma, and growth can be seen in sputum cultures such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

3. X-ray inspection

There was no significant change in the early stage. Repeated acute authors showed that the lungs were thickened, disordered, reticular or cord-like and spotted. This is due to thickening of the bronchial wall, infiltration or fibrosis of bronchial or alveolar interstitial inflammatory cells.

4. Pulmonary function test

Forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity ratio in one second. There was no significant change in the early stage. When the airflow was blocked, the forced expiratory volume in the first second and the ratio of FEV1 to vital capacity or forced vital capacity decreased. When the small airway is blocked, the flow rate of the maximum expiratory flow rate-capacity curve at 75% and 50% lung capacity can be significantly reduced, and the closed volume can be increased.

Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis

Yellow-white sticky: There is fruity taste in Flavobacterium pneumonia, elevated body temperature, difficulty in breathing, increased amount of sputum, yellow-white sticky, fruity. Check the lungs have a fine sound, a small amount of wheezing.

The adhesion of coal dust or cholesterol crystal: it is a symptom of the clinical manifestations of coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Coal miner's pneumoconiosis refers to the general term for lung lesions caused by coal mine workers' long-term inhalation of dust in the production environment.

Acute tracheobronchitis: the disease is a single dry cough or a small amount of mucus sputum. After the disease develops, the cough is intensified, the secretion is gradually increased, and the sputum is mucopurulent.