Introduction

Introduction

Leukemia cells are extensively and uncontrolledly hyperplasia. In addition to involving the hematopoietic system, they can also infiltrate various tissues and organs throughout the body. An important pathological change of acute and chronic leukemia is that leukemia cells infiltrate important organs in the body, such as liver, heart, brain, kidney, spleen, etc., causing irreversible damage to organs. The general principle of treatment is to eliminate leukemia cell populations and control the proliferation of leukemia cells, and to eliminate various clinical manifestations caused by leukemia cell infiltration.

Pathogen

Cause

An important pathological change of acute and chronic leukemia is that leukemia cells infiltrate important organs in the body, such as liver, heart, brain, kidney, spleen, etc., causing irreversible damage to organs.

With the development of molecular biology technology, the etiology of leukemia has entered the research of molecular biology from group medicine and cell biology. Although many factors are thought to be associated with leukemia, the exact cause of human leukemia is still unknown. At present, the cause of leukemia is still considered to be related to infection, radiation factors, chemical factors, and genetic factors.

1. Children born to close relatives: The offspring of close relatives are married, and the incidence of hereditary diseases is 150 times higher than that of non-close relatives. These children often have chromosomal variation, so they are more likely to get leukemia.

2, history of exposure to chemical drugs, poisons: people living in oil fields, chemical plants, or long-term exposure to chemical agents are more susceptible to disease.

3, long-term contact with gasoline: car drivers and benzene-containing gasoline long-term contact, resulting in high risk of leukemia.

Examine

an examination

Related inspection

Serum interleukin-8 bone marrow image analysis interleukin-1 (IL-1) blood routine interleukin 2 (iL-2)

A, liver, splenomegaly, swollen lymph nodes.

B, nervous system: The main lesions are hemorrhage and leukemia infiltration.

C, bone and joint: bone and joint pain is one of the important symptoms of leukemia, ALL is more common.

D, skin; there may be two kinds of specific and non-specific skin lesions, the former manifested as maculopapular rash, pustules, masses, nodules, erythroderma, exfoliative dermatitis, etc., more common in adult monocytic leukemia, the latter More manifestations of skin ecchymosis, spots and so on.

E, oral cavity: swelling of the gums, bleeding, leukemia infiltration more common in AML-M5, severe cases of the entire gum can be extremely hyperplasia, swelling such as sponge-like, surface ulceration and easy bleeding.

F, heart: most manifested as myocardial leukemia infiltration, hemorrhage and epicardial hemorrhage, pericardial effusion.

G, kidney: more than 40% of patients with leukemia with kidney disease.

H, gastrointestinal system: manifested as nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal distension, diarrhea and so on.

I, lung and pleura: mainly infiltrating the alveolar wall and lung space, but also infiltrating the bronchus, pleura, blood vessel wall and so on.

J, other: uterus, ovary, testis, prostate, etc. can be infiltrated by white blood cells. Female patients often have vaginal bleeding and menstrual cycle disorders. Male patients may have decreased libido.

Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis

Leukemia is a malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue, also known as "blood cancer." It is characterized by a large number of non-nucleated cells in bone marrow and other hematopoietic tissues, which grow unrestrictedly and enter the peripheral blood, which obviously adsorbs the core of normal blood cells. The disease ranks first in the malignant diseases of young people, and the progenitor virus may be neurotic. Negative tissue proliferation, there are many factors such as mineralization of food mineralization, poisoning (benzene, etc.) or drug variation, genetic quality, etc. may be the cofactor of disease. According to the degree of immature leukemia cells and the natural course of leukemia, they are divided into acute and chronic categories.