Bamboo spine

Introduction

Introduction

An obvious symptom of ankylosing spondylitis is the bamboo spine. Ankylosing sporidylitis (AS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease that primarily invades the spine and can affect the ankle and surrounding joints to varying degrees. The disease is also known as Marie-strümpell disease, Von Bechterew disease, rheumatoid spondylitis, deformity spondylitis, rheumatoid center type, etc., now known as AS. AS is characterized by inflammation and ossification of the lumbar, cervical, and thoracic spine joints and ligaments, and the ankle joint. The hip joint is often involved, and inflammation can occur in other surrounding joints.

The disease is generally negative for rheumatoid factor, so it is associated with Reiter syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, enteropathic arthritis and other seronegative spondylosis.

Pathogen

Cause

Causes

The etiology of AS has not yet been fully elucidated, and most of them are related to genetics, infection, and immune environmental factors.

Genetic

Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of AS. According to the epidemiological survey, the positive rate of HLA-B27 in AS patients is as high as 90% to 96%, while the positive rate of HLA-B27 in the general population is only 4% to 9%. The incidence of AS in HLA-B27 positive patients is about 10% to 20%. The incidence of the general population is 12, which is about 100 times. It has been reported that the risk of AS in a group of relatives of AS is 20 to 40 times higher than that of the average person. The prevalence of first-degree relatives in AS is 24.2%, which is 120 times higher than that of the normal population. In HLA-B27-positive healthy subjects, relatives had a much lower incidence of AS than relatives of HLA-B27-positive AS patients. All of these indicate that HLA-B27 is an important factor in the pathogenesis of AS.

However, it should be noted that on the one hand, not all HLA-B27-positive patients have spondyloarthropathy. On the other hand, about 5% to 20% of patients with spondyloarthropathy have negative HLA-B27, suggesting that in addition to genetic factors, Other factors affect the onset of AS, so HLA-B27 is an important genetic factor in AS expression, but it is not the only factor affecting the disease. There are several hypotheses that explain the joints of HLA-B27 and spondyloarthropathy:

1HLA-B27 acts as a receptor site for an infectious agent;

2HLA-B27 is a soil modification of immune response genes, determining the susceptibility to environmental stimuli;

3HLA-B27 can cross-react with foreign antigens to induce tolerance to foreign antigens; 4HLA-B27 enhances neutrophil activity. With the help of monoclonal antibodies, cytotoxic lymphocytes, immunoelectrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism, it has been determined that there are about 7 or 8 subtypes of HLA-B27 [1]. HLA-B27-positive healthy individuals may have genetic differences with spine disease patients. For example, all HLA-B27 individuals have a constant HLA-B27M1 epitope, and antibodies against this antigenic determinant can cross-react with HLA-B27.

Most HLA-B27 molecules also have M2 epitopes. HLA-B27M2 negative molecules appear to be more strongly associated with AS than other HLA-B27 subtypes, especially in Asians, and HLA-B27M2 positive subtypes may have increased susceptibility to Reiter's syndrome. It has been demonstrated that HLA-B27M1 and M2 antigenic determinants and the joint-causing factors of S. cerevisiae, Shigella and Nasrogen can cross-react. Those with low response appear to be mostly AS, and those with increased response develop into reactive arthritis or Reiter syndrome.

2. Infection

Recent studies suggest that the incidence of AS may be associated with infection. Ebrimger et al found that the detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in stools of AS patients was 79%, while that in the control group <30%; the carrier rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the active phase of AS and the IgA type antibodies against the bacteria in serum The titer was higher than that of the control group and was positively correlated with the disease activity.

Some people have increased the cross-reactivity or common structure of Klebsiella and HLA-B27 during antigenic residues, such as HLA-B27 (host antigen residues 72 to 77) and the lungs are Klebsiella (residues 188 to 193) It has a homologous oxyacid sequence, and whether other Gram-negative bacteria have antibodies that bind to this synthetic peptide sequence, 29% of patients with HLA-B27-positive AS, and only 5% of the control group [15]. According to Mason et al, 83% of male AS patients with prostatitis, some authors found about 6% ulcerative colitis with AS; other reports also confirmed that the incidence of ulcerative ulcers and localized enteritis in AS patients is higher than the general population It is much higher, so it is speculated that AS may be related to infection.

Romonus believes that pelvic infection may spread to the ankle joint via the lymphatic route, and then spread to the spine through the spinal venous plexus, but the infection (bacteria or virus) could not be found in the lesion.

3. Autoimmune

It has been found that 60% of AS patients have elevated serum complement, most cases have IgA type wet factors, serum C4 and IgA levels are significantly increased, and circulating immune complexes (CIC) are present in the serum, but the antigenic properties are not determined. The above phenomenon suggests that the immune mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease.

4. Other

Trauma, endocrine, metabolic disorders and allergies are also suspected to be pathogenic factors. In short, the cause of this disease is currently unknown, and there is no single theory that can fully explain the full performance of AS. It is likely to be caused by various factors such as environmental factors (including infection) on the basis of genetic factors.

Examine

an examination

Related inspection

Spinal palpation of the spine MRI examination of spinal activity spinal tenderness and snoring pain spine vertebral body plain scan

1. Computerized tomography (CT)

For clinical suspicion and X-ray can not be diagnosed, CT examination can be performed, which can clearly show the ankle joint gap, and is unique for measuring whether the joint space is widened, narrowed, straight or partially strong.

2. Magnetic resonance (MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

The researchers believe that MRI and SPECT scintigraphy of the ankle joint film is very helpful for very early diagnosis and treatment. From this point of view, it is obviously superior to ordinary X-ray, but it is expensive and is not recommended as a routine examination.

3. Laboratory inspection

The white blood cell count is normal or elevated, the proportion of lymphocytes is slightly increased, a few patients have mild anemia (positive cells with low pigmentation), erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be increased, but the correlation with disease activity is small, while C-reactive protein is more meaningful. . Serum albumin decreased, 1 and gamma globulin increased, serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM increased, and serum complements C3 and C4 increased frequently. About 50% of patients have elevated alkaline phosphatase and serum creatine phosphokinase is also elevated. Serum rheumatoid factor was negative. Although 90% to 95% of AS patients are HLA-B27 positive, generally do not rely on HLA-B27 to diagnose AS, HLA-B27 is not routinely examined.

4. X-ray inspection

The diagnosis of AS is of great significance. 98% to 100% of cases have X-ray changes of the ankle in the early stage, which is an important basis for the diagnosis of this disease. The early X-ray showed ankle arthritis, and the lesion usually began in the middle and lower part of the ankle joint and was bilateral. At the beginning, more violations of the humeral side, and in violation of the humeral side. It can be seen as a spot or block, and the humerus side is obvious. In turn, the entire joint can be invaded, the edges are serrated, the bones under the cartilage are hardened, the bones proliferate, and the joint space is narrowed. Finally, the joint space disappears and bony rigidity occurs. The X-ray diagnostic criteria for sacroiliitis are divided into 5 stages: grade 0 is normal ankle joint, stage I is suspicious ankle arthritis, stage II is ankle joint edge blur, slightly hardening and micro-invasive lesions, joint space is not Change, stage III is moderate or progressive ankle arthritis with one (or more) changes: near joint area sclerosis, joint space narrowing / widening, bone destruction or partial rigidity, stage IV is complete fusion of the joint Or with or without hardening.

X-ray findings of spinal lesions, early general osteoporosis, vertebral facet joints and vertebral trabecular trabeculae (decalcification), vertebral body as "square vertebrae", the normal curvature of the lumbar spine disappeared and straightened, can cause One or more vertebral compression fractures. The lesion progresses to the thoracic and cervical intervertebral facet joints, calcification occurs in the intervertebral disc space, the anterior longitudinal ligament calcification, ossification, and ligament callus formation, so that the adjacent vertebral bodies are commissure, forming a vertebral body bone bridge, showing the most A characteristic "bamboo-like spine". Primary AS and secondary spondylitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, Reiter syndrome, and psoriatic arthritis have similar X-ray findings, but the latter is asymmetrical. Bone erosion and periostitis can occur at the attachment of ligaments, tendons, and bursa, most commonly in calcaneus, ischial tuberosity, and humerus. Similar X-ray changes can occur in other surrounding joints.

Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis

Humpback: It is a relatively common spinal deformity, which is a morphological change caused by the thoracic spine. 1. The human spine is arched backwards, mostly caused by old spine deformation, sitting posture or rickets, ankylosing spondylitis and other diseases.

Spinal curvature: refers to one or several segments of the spine that are bent laterally from the midline of the body in the coronal plane to form a curvature of the spine, usually accompanied by rotation of the spine and kyphosis or anterior The increase or decrease of the protrusion, as well as the ribs of the ribs, the rotation of the pelvis and the abnormality of the ligaments and muscles of the paravertebral, it is a symptom or X-ray sign, which can be caused by many diseases.

Spinal degeneration: The spine is the longitudinal axis of the human body. It supports body weight and dominates the physiological activities of the trunk including flexion, flexion, and rotation. Under normal circumstances, the spine is the most prone to chronic strain in the human body.

Scoliosis: means that one or more segments of the spine are bent laterally from the midline of the body in the coronal plane to form a curvature of the spine, usually accompanied by rotation of the spine and posterior process of the sagittal plane or The increase or decrease of the protrusion, as well as the ribs of the ribs, the rotation of the pelvis and the abnormality of the ligaments and muscles of the paravertebral, it is a symptom or X-ray sign, which can be caused by many diseases.